Familiarity with your environment is crucial for productive development and debugging. This page gives a brief overview of the mCertiKOS environment and useful GDB and QEMU commands. Don't take our word for it, though. Read the GDB and QEMU manuals. These are powerful tools that are worth knowing how to use.
GDB is your friend. Use the
qemu-gdb target (or its
variant) to make QEMU wait for GDB to attach. See the GDB
reference below for some commands that are useful when debugging
If you're getting unexpected interrupts, exceptions, or triple faults,
you can ask QEMU to generate a detailed log of interrupts using the
To debug virtual memory issues, try the QEMU monitor commands
mem (for a high-level overview) or
info pg (for lots of
detail). Note that these commands only display the current page
(Lab 4+) To debug multiple CPUs, use GDB's thread-related commands like
GDB also lets you debug user environments, but there are a few things you need to watch out for, since GDB doesn't know that there's a distinction between multiple user environments, or between user and kernel.
You can symbolically debug user code, just like you can kernel code, but
you have to tell GDB which symbol table to use with the
symbol-file command, since it can only use one
symbol table at a time. The provided
.gdbinit.tmpl loads the kernel symbol
obj/kern/kernel. The symbol table for a user environment is in
its ELF binary, so you can load it using symbol-file obj/user/name.
Don't load symbols from any
.o files, as those haven't been
relocated by the linker (libraries are statically linked into mCertiKOS user
binaries, so those symbols are already included in each user binary).
Make sure you get the right user binary; library functions will be
linked at different EIPs in different binaries and GDB won't know any
(Lab 4+) Since GDB is attached to the virtual machine as a whole, it
sees clock interrupts as just another control transfer. This makes it
basically impossible to step through user code because a clock interrupt
is virtually guaranteed the moment you let the VM run again. The
stepi command works because it suppresses interrupts, but it
only steps one assembly instruction. Breakpoints generally
work, but watch out because you can hit the same EIP in a different
environment (indeed, a different binary altogether!).
The mCertiKOS GNUmakefile includes a number of phony targets for running mCertiKOS
in various ways. All of these targets configure QEMU to listen for GDB
*-gdb targets also wait for this connection). To
start once QEMU is running, simply run gdb from your lab directory. We
.gdbinit.tmpl file that automatically points GDB at QEMU, loads
the kernel symbol file, and switches between 16-bit and 32-bit mode.
Exiting GDB will shut down QEMU.
Ctrl-a xin your terminal.
make qemu, but run with only the serial console. To exit, press
Ctrl-a x. This is particularly useful over SSH connections to the Zoo because the VGA window consumes a lot of bandwidth.
gdbwith the settings in the mCertiKOS
make qemu, but rather than passively accepting GDB connections at any time, this pauses at the first machine instruction and waits for a GDB connection.
The makefile also accepts a few useful variables:
When building mCertiKOS, the makefile also produces some additional output files that may prove useful while debugging:
See the GDB manual for a full guide to GDB commands. Here are some particularly useful commands for CPSC422/522, some of which don't typically come up outside of OS development.
set print pretty
eflags, and the segment selectors. For a much more thorough dump of the machine register state, see QEMU's own
$eipas addr will display the instructions at the current instruction pointer.
obj/kern/kernel. If the machine is running user code, say
hello.c, you can switch to the hello symbol file using
QEMU represents each virtual CPU as a thread in GDB, so you can use all of GDB's thread-related commands to view or manipulate QEMU's virtual CPUs.
QEMU includes a built-in monitor that can inspect and modify the machine state in useful ways. To enter the monitor, press Ctrl-a c in the terminal running QEMU. Press Ctrl-a c again to switch back to the serial console.
For a complete reference to the monitor commands, see the QEMU manual. Here are some particularly useful commands:
Display a full dump of the machine's internal register state. In particular, this includes the machine's hidden segment state for the segment selectors and the local, global, and interrupt descriptor tables, plus the task register. This hidden state is the information the virtual CPU read from the GDT/LDT when the segment selector was loaded. Here's the CS when running in the mCertiKOS kernel in lab 1 and the meaning of each field:
CS =0008 10000000 ffffffff 10cf9a00 DPL=0 CS32 [-R-]
0x8&4=0), and our CPL (current privilege level) is
DSfor data segments (not to be confused with the DS register), and
LDTfor local descriptor tables.
(Lab 2+) Display mapped virtual memory and permissions. For example,
ef7c0000-ef800000 00040000 urw efbf8000-efc00000 00008000 -rw
tells us that the
0x00040000 bytes of memory from
0xef800000 are mapped read/write and user-accessible, while the
0xefc00000 is mapped read/write, but only
info mem, but distinguishes page directory entries and page table entries and gives the permissions for each separately. Repeated PTE's and entire page tables are folded up into a single line. For example,
VPN range Entry Flags Physical page [00000-003ff] PDE -------UWP [00200-00233] PTE[200-233] -------U-P 00380 0037e 0037d 0037c 0037b 0037a .. [00800-00bff] PDE ----A--UWP [00800-00801] PTE[000-001] ----A--U-P 0034b 00349 [00802-00802] PTE -------U-P 00348
This shows two page directory entries, spanning virtual addresses
respectively. Both PDE's are present, writable, and user and the
second PDE is also accessed. The second of these page tables maps
three pages, spanning virtual addresses
0x00802fff, of which the first two are present, user, and accessed
and the third is only present and user. The first of these PTE's
maps physical page
QEMU also takes some useful command line arguments, which can be passed
into the mCertiKOS makefile using the
make QEMUEXTRA='-d int' ...
qemu.log. You can ignore the first two log entries, "SMM: enter" and "SMM: after RMS", as these are generated before entering the boot loader. After this, log entries look like
4: v=30 e=0000 i=1 cpl=3 IP=001b:00800e2e pc=00800e2e SP=0023:eebfdf28 EAX=00000005 EAX=00000005 EBX=00001002 ECX=00200000 EDX=00000000 ESI=00000805 EDI=00200000 EBP=eebfdf60 ESP=eebfdf28 ...
The first line describes the interrupt. The
4: is just a log
v gives the vector number in hex.
e gives the
i=1 indicates that this was produced by an
instruction (versus a hardware interrupt). The rest of the line
should be self-explanatory. See
info registers for a description
of the register dump that follows.
- Note: If you're running a pre-0.15 version of QEMU, the log will be
/tmp instead of the current directory.